(Abstract) Background Dengue is an emerging vector borne disease in Nepal and rapid diagnostic test is important for early diagnosis of the disease. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of commonly used rapid immunochromatographic test kit in Nepal during 2010 dengue epidemic and to assess disease burden of dengue. Methods A total of 131 acute and nonacute serum samples were collected during recent epidemic of dengue in 2010 from clinically suspected Nepalese patients of different hospitals. Rapid immunochromatographic test kit was used for early diagnosis and enzyme immunosorbent was chosen as a reference assay. Results The sensitivity and specificity of rapid test was 70% and 76.54% respectively whereas the prevalence of the disease was 38.17%. The odds ratio for males was 1.8 however; the association with the disease was statistically not significant. Conclusion The diagnostic accuracy of rapid immunochromatographic test for dengue diagnosis was low (k=0.46). So, it should be substituted by highly sensitive test device for prompt diagnosis and health personnel should consider appropriate timing of sample collection for better performance of rapid test.
(Abstract) Conditions that facilitate sustained dengue transmission exist in the United States, and outbreaks have occurred during the past decade in Texas, Hawaii, and Florida. More outbreaks can also be expected in years to come. To combat dengue, medical and public health practitioners in areas with mosquito vectors that are competent to transmit the virus must be aware of the threat of reemergent dengue, and the need for early reporting and control to reduce the impact of dengue outbreaks. Comprehensive dengue control includes human and vector surveillance, vector management programs, and community engagement efforts. Public health, medical, and vector-control communities must collaborate to prevent and control disease spread. Policy makers should understand the role of mosquito abatement and community engagement in the prevention and control of the disease.
(Abstract) BACKGROUND: A vaccine to prevent dengue disease is urgently needed. Fortunately, a few tetravalent candidate vaccines are in the later stages of development and show promise. But, if the cost of these candidates is too high, their beneficial potential will not be realized. The price of a vaccine is one of the most important factors affecting its ultimate application in developing countries. In recent years, new vaccines such as those for human papilloma virus and pneumococcal disease (conjugate vaccine) have been introduced with prices in developed countries exceeding $50 per dose. These prices are above the level affordable by developing countries. In contrast, other vaccines such as those against Japanese encephalitis (SA14-14-2 strain vaccine) and meningitis type A have prices in developing countries below one dollar per dose, and it is expected that their introduction and use will proceed more rapidly. Because dengue disease is caused by four related viruses, vaccines must be able to protect against all four. Although there are several live attenuated dengue vaccine candidates under clinical evaluation, there remains uncertainty about the cost of production of these tetravalent vaccines, and this uncertainty is an impediment to rapid progress in planning for the introduction and distribution of dengue vaccines once they are licensed. METHOD: We have undertaken a detailed economic analysis, using standard industrial methodologies and applying generally accepted accounting practices, of the cost of production of a live attenuated vaccine, originally developed at the US National Institutes of Health (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases), to be produced at the Instituto Butantan in Sao Paulo, Brazil. We determined direct costs of materials, direct costs of personnel and labor, indirect costs, and depreciation. These were analyzed assuming a steady-state production of 60 million doses per year. RESULTS: Although this study does not seek to compute the price of the final licensed vaccine, the cost of production estimate produced here leads to the conclusion that the vaccine can be made available at a price that most ministries of health in developing countries could afford. This conclusion provides strong encouragement for supporting the development of the vaccine so that, if it proves to be safe and effective, licensure can be achieved soon and the burden of dengue disease can be reduced.
(Abstract) PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dengue is currently an expanding global health problem. Development of an effective tetravalent dengue vaccine is considered a high public health priority. The uniqueness of the dengue viruses (DENVs) and the spectrum of disease resulting from infection has made dengue vaccine development difficult. This review focuses on the current critical issues in dengue vaccine development. RECENT FINDINGS: DENVs are arboviral flaviviruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes causing a spectrum of clinical disease. DENV infections are a significant global health problem; the WHO estimates that more than 120 countries have endemic DENV transmission resulting in 70-500 million infections, 2.1 million clinically severe cases, and 21 000 deaths annually. There are currently no licensed antivirals or vaccines to treat or prevent dengue. The DENV-host interaction of infection is unique with severe disease a consequence of sequential dengue infection, viral immune evasion, host antibody enhancement, host immune activation, and genetic predisposition. This unique pathogen-host interaction complicates dengue vaccine development and creates provocative questions in vaccine development such as identifying markers of protective immunogenicity, the potential role of antibody in vaccine failures, and the possible impact of large-scale vaccination on the evolution of wild-type DENV. SUMMARY: Dengue is a unique and complex disease; developing a dengue vaccine has proven equally complex. In this review, the authors discuss issues that will prove to be critical to the success or failure of the dengue vaccine development effort.
(Abstract) After 3 dengue cases were acquired in Key West, Florida, we conducted a serosurvey to determine the scope of the outbreak. Thirteen residents showed recent infection (infection rate 5%; 90% CI 2%-8%), demonstrating the reemergence of dengue in Florida. Increased awareness of dengue among health care providers is needed.
(Abstract) Dengue infection is a significant and escalating public health problem in Latin America. Its re-emergence and subsequent rise in the region over the past 50 years has largely been caused by a combination of a lack of political will, the radical growth of urban populations, migration flow and insufficient financial resources. Its increased incidence has been compounded by climate change, poor sanitation and extreme poverty, which lead to more breeding sites of the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. In order to control dengue effectively, an integrated approach incorporating vector management and environmental and social solutions is required. To achieve success, these programmes require commitment and responses at both national and community level. The development of a vaccine is a vital tool in the fight against dengue. For successful introduction, those implementing vaccination need to be educated on the value of such a strategy. Effective political leadership, innovative financial mechanisms and co-operation across all disciplines, sectors and national borders are essential to eradication of the disease.
(Abstract) Dengue, a neglected tropical disease that is reemerging around the world, became a nationally notifiable disease in the United States in 2009. Travel to tropical and subtropical areas in the developing world poses the greatest risk of infection for US residents, and an increase in travel to these areas makes this infection more likely to be seen by primary care physicians in their practices.
(Abstract) BACKGROUND: Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease. In the absence of specific drugs or vaccines, control focuses on suppressing the principal mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, yet current methods have not proven adequate to control the disease. New methods are therefore urgently needed, for example genetics-based sterile-male-release methods. However, this requires that lab-reared, modified mosquitoes be able to survive and disperse adequately in the field. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult male mosquitoes were released into an uninhabited forested area of Pahang, Malaysia. Their survival and dispersal was assessed by use of a network of traps. Two strains were used, an engineered 'genetically sterile' (OX513A) and a wild-type laboratory strain, to give both absolute and relative data about the performance of the modified mosquitoes. The two strains had similar maximum dispersal distances (220 m), but mean distance travelled of the OX513A strain was lower (52 vs. 100 m). Life expectancy was similar (2.0 vs. 2.2 days). Recapture rates were high for both strains, possibly because of the uninhabited nature of the site. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: After extensive contained studies and regulatory scrutiny, a field release of engineered mosquitoes was safely and successfully conducted in Malaysia. The engineered strain showed similar field longevity to an unmodified counterpart, though in this setting dispersal was reduced relative to the unmodified strain. These data are encouraging for the future testing and implementation of genetic control strategies and will help guide future field use of this and other engineered strains.
(Abstract) BACKGROUND: In recent years, new strategies aimed at reducing the capacity of mosquito vectors to transmit dengue fever have emerged. As with earlier control methods, they will have to be employed in a diverse range of communities across the globe and into the main settings for disease transmission, the homes, businesses and public buildings of residents in dengue-affected areas. However, these strategies are notably different from previous methods and draw on technologies that are not without controversy. Public engagement and authorization are critical to the future success of these programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This paper reports on an Australian case study where long-term social research was used to enable participation and the design of an engagement strategy tailored specifically to the sociopolitical setting of a potential trial release site of Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegytpi mosquitoes. Central themes of the social research, methods used and conclusions drawn are briefly described. Results indicate that different communities are likely to have divergent expectations, concerns and cultural sensibilities with regard to participation, engagement and authorization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings show that a range of issues need to be understood and taken into account to enable sensitive, ethical and effective engagement when seeking public support for new dengue control methods.
(Abstract) Dengue represents a major public health problem of growing global importance. In the absence of specific dengue therapeutics, strategies for disease control have increasingly focused on the development of dengue vaccines. While a licensed dengue vaccine is not yet available, several vaccine candidates are currently being evaluated in clinical trials and are described in detail in accompanying articles. In addition, there are a large variety of candidates in preclinical development, which are based on diverse technologies, ensuring a continued influx of innovation into the development pipeline. Potentially, some of the current preclinical candidates may become next generation dengue vaccines with superior product profiles. This review provides an overview of the various technological approaches to dengue vaccine development and specifically focuses on candidates in preclinical development.